Tuesday, June 24, 2008

More Tips for Level Two

Tips? That means 'little pieces of advice'. You could also say 'little pearls of advice' - consigli preziosi!

I've indicated Listening and the New English File Pre-Intermediate site. Now see something else.

It's called Concordancing. A concordance is a list of all the occurrences of a chosen word in a text. You choose the word. The computer then searches a very large body of text, called a 'corpus', for your chosen word. Then it displays the word down the centre of the computer screen, with the context sentence showing on either side.

Here's an example, based on a search for "don't have to", followed by "didn't have to":

001. people of your own kind", a girl remarked. "You DON'T HAVE TO watch what you say. Of course, I w
002. hink Penny's an awful nice girl, Russ"- "You DON'T HAVE TO tell me", flashed Cobb. Giving the
003. me today. A fellow came up to me, a Senator, I DON'T HAVE TO tell you his name, and he told me,
004. start them successfully in cold frames. Pansies DON'T HAVE TO be coddled; they'd rather have thi
005. dox Jews: "It's the twentieth century, and they DON'T HAVE TO wear beards". The reason offere
006. ut Evadna Mae Evans". "Well now, Maggie, you DON'T HAVE TO snap at me", Eugenia said. "I'm ju
001. ll your guys not to block the plate". "You DIDN'T HAVE TO ram him". "That's what you say
002. ing baby to a candidate for Hanford College. He DIDN'T HAVE TO be told his son looked like him.
003. e in the morning. It was an awkward hour, but I DIDN'T HAVE TO punch any time clock, and it only
004. ted his request. He took her hand. "I wish I DIDN'T HAVE TO go back to school", she said, and
005. h into it as he could. He left a few things. It DIDN'T HAVE TO be perfect. Roberts was a wastrel
006. mad as she was at his going away when he really DIDN'T HAVE TO, mad at their both having got old

Here's another example based on a search of the preposition "into", sorted left so that you can see what verbs are associated with this preposition:

011. out the land. They say it helps them bring back INTO schools the spiritual and moral values on w
012. , and John Nichols, sophomore guard, moved back INTO action after a week's idleness with an ankl
049. light"! And there is light! In fact, He came INTO this world Himself, in the person of His So
050. ading marks my 15th anniversary. When I came INTO being, 15 years ago, I had one primary purp
051. ead. I was full of hope as Fidel Castro came INTO Havana. Within a week, however, I began to
087. e in administration. They had divided the Congo INTO six provinces- Leopoldville, Kasai, Kivu, K
088. stortion of President Eisenhower's conversation INTO a denunciation of President Kennedy as too
089. extremely competent men who have been converted INTO very incompetent managers or submerged in p
090. uditorium and at least one hotel were converted INTO makeshift jails. More than 1,000 were said

You can click on the key expressions in order to expand the context.

Why use a concordancer? So that you can easily discover how words are used in authentic English. Do not worry whether you can undrestand the words you don't know. Look instead at the keyword and how it is used.

Here are a few ideas for searches:

1. Verbs ending in "ing". Observe what verb comes before the "ing" verb or, in this case, the "gerund".

nhower Republicanism, but the heart stopped beatING and the lifeblood congealed after Eisenhower
oes not drive during that time. He was caught drivING the day after the sentence was pronounced an

What other kinds of words precede "-ing"?

2. "may" and "might" - can you find any differences?

3. Examples and meanings of "get".

Here is the Corpus Concordance English (v.5) - click on the link.

Give us your impressions by using the Tag Board or posting a Comment. This is very important.
More soon - Mike

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